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International Journal of Human Nutrition and Functional Medicine


2014 Final PDF

Some genetic disorders are inherited, while other

genetic diseases are caused by acquired changes or

mutations in a preexisting gene or group of genes.

Mutations occur either randomly or due to some

environmental exposure. Any change that affects the

quantity or quality of metabolic enzymes predispose to an

adverse physiological condition. Even though many


per se

are not inherited, the predisposition to

suffer or to be at risk from the condition is. This is the

main reason we consider chronic degenerative diseases as

inborn errors of metabolism.

Chronic diseases may be caused by genetic

factors and environment (lifestyle) and their interaction

(i.e. epigenetics) play an important role, and may cause

genes to (or fail to manifest) in particular ways. In spite of

this, if we submit two non-related individuals to the same

conditions why one develops the condition and the other

one does not Clearly, genetic mutations are not the only

components at work in the body, the genetic

predisposition is relevant as is the biochemical

individuality of each individual.

Degenerative diseases can manifest themselves in

the human body when the body is out of physical and

chemical balance. Degenerative diseases are not a local

condition just like cancer is not just a tumor, they are

chronic, systemic, metabolic dysfunctions, usually

characterized by specific dietary deficiencies or

insufficiencies, a host of pathological conditions and a

series of chemical, physical, mental and energy


The concept underlying an individualized,

integrated metabolic program is that of biochemical

individuality which addresses the patient’s deficiency and

excess levels, biochemical function, energy level, and

psychological factors. Certain individuals have a greater

need than that supplied by the diet (even a good dietary

regime). Their needs may vary from 10 to 1,000 times the

physiological requirement. This could be caused by:

Digestive problems, poor absorption, food sensitivities,

difficulty in the metabolism of certain amino acids, fatty

acids, complex carbohydrates, levels in the precursors of

neurotransmitters, etc.

This lack of needed cofactors has the problem that

it shows no specific symptoms. Some vague symptoms

such as lethargy, irritability, insomnia and difficulty in

concentrating may be present. Also it affects the body’s

ability to resist disease and infection, its ability to recover

from exercise, surgery, disease, the ability of the brain to

function at a high level. Detecting and treating disease at

its earliest stages of cellular biochemical abnormality,

rather than waiting for clear clinical symptoms is a cost

effective measure and of benefit to the patient. We must

have very clear in our minds that nutrient deficiency

diseases are the end product of a long and complex series

of nutrient depletion reactions.

Enzyme Control of Metabolic Reactions

Enzymes are often linked in multistep pathways, such that

the product of one reaction becomes the substrate for

another. In addition, the multiple steps provide additional

levels of regulation, and intermediates can be shunted into

other pathways to make other products. When all the

enzymes in a pathway are functioning properly,

intermediates rarely build up to high concentrations. This

is the basis of the Metabolic Correction concept.

Metabolism and the Metabolic Correction Concept

The Metabolic Correction Concept provides the

biochemical explanation of how to use nutrients for

prevention and therapeutic purposes against disease.






biochemical/physiological concept that explains how

improvements in cellular biochemistry help the body

achieve metabolic or physiological optimization. Impaired

or incomplete cellular biochemical reactions are amended

with Metabolic Correction.

Enzyme Defects Cause Metabolic Disorders

It has been documented that the main cause of enzyme

defects are genetic mutations that affect the structure or

regulation of the enzyme or that create problems with the

transport, processing, or binding of enzymatic cofactors.

In general, the consequences of an enzyme deficiency are

due to perturbations of the cellular biochemistry, because

of either a reduction in the amount of an essential product,

the buildup or production of a toxic intermediate or side

product (


) All these tribulations are probably due to a

lack or limitation of necessary enzymatic cofactors and


Polymorphisms, Nutrigenomics and Genetic


The enzymopathy (disturbances of enzyme function)

present in these conditions are determinant in the further

development of chronic degenerative diseases. are

generally characterized by uncertain etiology, multiple

risk factors, a long latency period, a prolonged course of

illness, non-contagious origin, functional impairment or

disability, and incurability. Nevertheless we believe that

with proper metabolic correction; these polymorphic

inborn errors of metabolism can be made functional

through proper metabolic corrections in the patient’s

physiology as a more effective manner to successfully

treat or prevent disease. In order to fully understand this

idea, the concept that we first have to embrace is

biochemical individuality. Biochemical individuality

refers to the unique nutritional needs each person has,